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      成人學位英語考試常考語法:動詞的時態

       考試重點:一般現在時(if 從句和as soon as 從句);進行時表將來;現在完成時和現在完成進行時的區別;完成時瞬間動詞以及have (has) been, have (has) gone的區別;過去完成時的時間狀語;將來完成時。

        一、一般現在式

        1、表示經常發生的動作或存在的狀態:常和always, usually, often, sometimes, every day, every week的等時間狀語連用。

        例:He goes to work every day. 他每天去上班。

        2、表示普遍的真理。由于是眾所周知的客觀事實,所以一般不用時間狀語。

        例:The earth is round. 地球是圓的。

        3、有些表示心理狀態或感情的動詞往往用一般現在時。

        例:I don't think you are right.我以為你錯了。

        4、在時間、條件狀語從句中表示將來的動作:常用的連詞有as soon as, when, till, if.

        (1)They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they ________their exams.

        A. have finished

        B. finish

        C. finished

        D. was finishing

        (答案:B)

        (2)When the mixture ______, it will give off a powerful force.

        A. will heat

        B. will be heated

        C. is heated

        D. has heated

        (答案:C)

        二、一般過去時

        1、表示過去的動作或狀態:常和過去時間狀語連用。just now, last year, when I was 8years old等。

        例:You've already missed too many classes this term .You _____ two classes just last week.

        A. missed

        B. would miss

        C. had missed

        D. have missed

        (答案:A.有具體的時間狀語要用過去時。)

        2、used to do sth:過去常常做…

        例:I used to take a walk in the morning.

        我過去是在早晨散步。(意味著現在不在早晨散步了。)

        3、it is high time (that)…句型中,謂語動詞用過去時。

        例:Don't you think it is time you _____ smoking?

        A. give up

        B. gave up

        C. would give up

        D. should give up

        (答案:B)

        三、一般將來時

        1、will (shall) +原形動詞:表示將來的動作或狀態。

        例:He will come and help you. 他會來幫助你的。

        2、be going to +動詞原形:表示馬上就要發生的事情或打算好要做的事。

        例:Are you going to attend the lecture? 你打算去聽這個演講嗎?

        3、be to +動詞原形:表示安排或計劃好了的動作。

        例:The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day.

        三環路將在國慶節前通車。

        4、be about to +動詞原形:表示即將發生的動作。

        5、例:The lecture is about to begin.講座即將開始。

        6、某些表示開始、終結、往來行動的動詞如:go, come, start, arrive, leave 等的現在進行時可表示將來。

        (1)We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我們明天動身去北京。

        (2)The foreign guests are arriving in Jinan tonight. 外賓今晚到達濟南。

        四、過去將來時

        表示在過去預計將要發生的動作,常用于賓語從句。

        例:He wanted to know when the conference would start.

        他想知道會議何時開始。

        五、現在進行時

        1、表示此時此刻(說話時)正在進行的動作。

        例:The teacher is talking with his students. 這位老師正在同他的學生交談。

        2、表示現階段正在進行的動作,但此刻并不一定在進行。

        例:I am attending a conference in Beijing. 我正在北京參加一個會議。

        六、過去進行時

        1、表示在過去某一段時間正在進行的動作。常需用表示過去的時間狀語或通過上下文來判斷時間。

        例:He was doing his homework from seven to nine last night.

        昨天晚上七點到九點他正在做作業。

        2、when 和while 的用法

        (1)I fell and hurt myself while I _____tennis.

        A. was playing B. am playing C. play D. played

        (答案:A.連接詞when 表示時間上的點,其所引導的句子用過去時,while 表示持續的一段時間,其所引導的句子用過去進行時。)

        (2)When you _____ this over with her, you should not see her any more.

        A. talk B. talked C. will talk D. talking

        (答案為B)

        (3)One of the guards _____ when the general came in, which made him very angry.

        A. has slept B. were sleeping C. slept D. was sleeping

        (答案為D)

        3、過去進行時表示過去將來的動作。現在進行時可以表示將來的動作,同樣,過去進行時也可以表示從過去某時間看將來要發生的動作。

        例:He went to see Xiao Li. He was leaving early the next morning.

        他去看小李。他第二天一早就要離開此地了。

        七、現在完成時

        1、表示動作剛剛結束(常和just, now, already, yet等詞連用);或表示動作的結果(一般不用時間狀語)。

        (1)Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明剛剛把燈關上。(說明現在燈已經關上了)

        (2)I have lost my pen. 我把筆丟了。(說明過去某時丟的,現在我還沒有找到這支筆。)

        2、表示過去某時開始的動作一直延續到現在,并且可能會繼續延續下去(常用since引導的短語或從句,或由for 引導的短語連用)。

        (1)He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在這兒已經三十年了。(現在還住在這兒)

        (2)They've known each other since childhood. 他們從小彼此相識。(現在還繼續來往)

        3、非延續性動詞的完成時和it is +時間+since…(過去時)

        英語中有些動詞不能延續, 因此不能和表示延續的時間狀語連用。

        (1)He has _____ the army for ten years and is now an officer.

        A. gone into

        B. joined in

        C. been in

        D. come into

        (答案:C.用現在完成時表示“繼續”的概念時,只能用含有持續意義的動詞,不可用瞬間性動詞。)

        (2)It is 3 years since I left Shanghai .我離開上海已經三年了。

        (如果是非延續動詞,這時常用 it is +時間+since 的句型代替,從句用過去時態。)

        4、have (has) been to 和have (has) gone to 的區別

        have (has) been to:去過某地(表示某人的一種經歷),可以和once, twice, often, never, ever 連用。

        have (has) gone to:去某地了(表示某人已經離開此地,在去某地的路途上或已在某地,所以一般來說此句型只用于第三人稱),此句型不能與上述時間狀語連用。

        (1)He has gone to America.(意思為他已經去了美國,現在不在此地)

        (2)He has been to America twice. 他去過美國兩次。

        八、過去完成時

        1、表示在過去的某一時間或動作之前已經完成了的動作(即過去的過去)。這個過去的某一時間可用by,before等介詞或連詞引導的短語或一個從句來表示。

        例:About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese _____ paper.

        A. invented

        B. had invented

        C. have invented

        D. had been invented

        (答案:B)

        2、表示從過去某一時間開始,一直持續到另一個過去的時間的動作。

        例:The chemistry class _____ for five minutes when we hurried there.

        A. had been on

        B. was on

        C. has been on

        D. would be on

        (答案:A)

        3、在含有before, after, as soon as 等連詞引導的狀語從句的復合句中,由于連詞本身可以明確表示動作發生的先后順序,因此,主句和從句都可以用一般過去時表示,而不用過去完成時。

        例:I called him as soon as I arrived.我剛一到就給他打電話。

        4、過去完成時常用在no sooner …than…, hardly/scarcely/barely…when…,一…就…。句型之中,句子到裝。

        (1)No sooner had we sat down _____ we found it was time to go.

        A. than

        B. when

        C. as

        D. while

        (答案為A)

        (2)Scarcely had he opened the door when a gust of wind blew the candle out.

        他剛打開門,蠟燭就被一陣風吹滅了。

        九、將來完成時

        表示在將來某一時間以前完成的動作。

        1、By the time John gets home, his aunt _____.

        A. will have

        B. leaves

        C. will have left

        D. is leaving

        (答案:C)

        2、I _____ writing the article by the time you get back.

        A. shall finish

        B. must have finished

        C. have finished

        D. shall have finished

        (答案:D)

        十、現在完成進行時

        表示從過去某時一直延續到現在的一個動作,這個動作一般會繼續延續下去,或是到說話時結束, 但是強調到說話時為止一直在做的動作。

        例:I _____ on the door for ten minutes now without an answer.

        A. was knocking

        B. am knocking

        C. knocking

        D. have been knocking

        (答案:D)


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