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      成人學士學位英語考試語法大全:主謂一致

       1、定義:

        所謂“主謂一致”,就是指謂語在人稱和數上必須受主語的人稱和數的支配。這是英語和漢語在構句里的又一迥異之處。

        2、主謂一致的種類:

        ⑴ 語法形式上的一致主語為單數形式,謂語動詞用單數形式;主語為復數形式,謂語動詞為復數形式。如:

        I often help him and he often helps me. 我經常幫助他,他經常幫助我。

        We often help each other and learn from each other. 我們經常互相幫助,互相學習。

        ⑵ 意義上的一致

        a.主語形式雖為單數,但意義為復數,謂語動詞用復數。如:

        The crowd were surrounding the government official. 人群包圍住了這位政府官員。

        單數形式代表復數內容的詞有:people, police, cattle等。如:

        The Chinese people are brave and hard-working. 中國人民勇敢而又勤勞。

        b.主語形式為復數,而意義上卻是單數,謂語動詞用單數。news以及以ics結尾的學科名稱(如:physics,politics,maths,economics等)。

        ⑶ 就近原則

        就近原則即謂語動詞的單、復數形式取決于*靠近它的詞語。

        a. 并列主語用連詞or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等連接,謂語應同相鄰的主語保持人稱和數的一致。如:

        Not only the students but also the teacher enjoys listening to the music. 不僅學生而且這位老師也喜歡聽這種音樂。

        Are either you or he wrong? 要么是你錯,要么是他錯嗎?

        b. 在there be 表存在的句式中,主語是兩個或多個名詞(短語)的并列時,be 的形式與*前邊的一個名詞(短語)一致。如:

        There is a pen, two knives and several books on the table=There are two knives, a pen and several books on the table.桌子上有一支鋼筆、兩把小刀和幾本書。

        C. 副詞或介詞短語在句首的倒裝句中,必須認準哪是主語。如:

        Between the two buildings stands a monument. 兩幢樓之間聳立著一塊紀念碑。

        On the ship were over 2,200 people. More than 1,500 people lost their lives. Among those was the young woman. 船上有2,2001人,1,500多人喪生,這位年輕婦女也在其中。

        難點釋疑:

        名詞作主語

        1、當名詞詞組中心詞為表示度量、距離、金額、時間等復數名詞時,往往可以根據意義一致的原則,把這些復數名詞看作一個整體,謂語動詞用單數形式。

        如:Two hours is enough for me to finish the work. 兩小時對我來說完成這項工作足夠了。

        Two hundred dollars gives Jack much help.兩百美元幫了Jack大忙。

        2、如果主語有more than one… 或many a…構成,盡管從意義上看是復數內容,但它的謂語動詞仍然用單數形式。

        如:More than one comrade has asked to stay. 不止一位同志已經要求留下。

        Many a passenger was killed in the accident. 許多乘客在這一次事故中喪生。

        但是“more+復數名詞+than one”結構及“more than one hundred+復數名詞”結構之后,謂語動詞一般用復數形式。如:

        More members than one are against your plan. 不止一位成員反對你的計劃。

        3、不定代詞each, every, no所修飾的名詞及each…and each…, every…and every…, no…and no…, many a…and many a…結構作主語時,謂語動詞仍用單數形式。

        如:Every man and every woman is at work. 所有男的和女的都在工作。

        Many a desk and many a bench is to be taken out of the hall. 許多課桌和凳子將被搬出大廳。

        4、表示成雙成套的名詞,如:chopsticks(筷子), compasses, clothes, glasses, jeans, scissors, shoes, socks, trousers等,作主語時,謂語動詞通常用復數形式;但如與a kind of, a pair of, the pair of, a series of 連用,作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

        The trousers are in the drawer. 褲子在抽屜里。

        There is a pair of shoes under the bed. 有一雙鞋在床下。

        The pair of shoes is rather expensive. 這雙襪子很貴。

        5. 由連接詞連接的名詞作主語.

        1)、用and或both…and連接并列主語,表示不同概念,謂語動詞常用復數。如:

        You and he both stand up. 你和他都站了起來。

        Water and air are both important. 和空氣都很重要。

        Time and tide wait for no man. 歲月不待人。

        但并列結構充當主語表示整體概念時,即指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,謂語動詞用單數形式,這時and后面的名詞沒有冠詞。英語中并列結構表示整體概念的有:

        2)表示兼職或有多個稱呼的人。如:

        the worker and poet 這位工人兼詩人

        The writer and teacher is speaking at the meeting. 這位教師兼作家正在會上發言。

        6、當主語后面跟有as well as, along with, with, like, rather than, together with等引導的詞組時,其謂語動詞的單、復數按主語的單、復數而定。如:

        Your father as well as you is very kind to me. 不僅你而且你的父親對我都非常好。

        He, like you and Xiao Li, is very clever. 他象你和小李一樣非常聰明。

        Mr Robbins, together with his wife and children, is leaving London for Paris. Robbins先生明天將和妻子和孩子離開倫敦去巴黎。

        D. 分數、量詞作主語.

        1、“分數或百分數+of+名詞”構成的短語及由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, half of, a heap of, heaps of +名詞”構成的短語作主語時,謂語動詞的數與短語中of后面的名詞的數保持一致。如:

        More than 70 percent of the surface of ouor planet is covered by water. 我們星球的表面百分之七十多都被水覆蓋著。

        One third of the students are girls in our group. 我們隊三分之一的學生是女生。

        2、a great deal of/ a large amount of修飾不可數名詞,其短語作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式,如:

        A great deal of rice was taken from the country to the city by railway. 很多大米通過鐵路從鄉下運往城市。

        3、a number of+復數名詞作主語,謂語動詞用復數:the number of+復數名詞作主語,謂語動詞用單數。如:

        A number of students are going for a picnic this weekend. 這個周末許多學生將去野炊。

        The number of days in February this year is 28. 今年二月份的天數是二十八天。

        E. 名詞化的形容詞作主語“the+形容詞(或過去分詞或現在分詞)”如:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the wounded, the injured, the unemployed, the dying, the living等結構擔任主語表示一類人時,謂語動詞常用復數形式,如:

        The young are more active than the old. 青年人比老年人積極。

        F. 動名詞、不定式短語和從句作主語,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

        To learn a foreign language is not so difficult as you think. 學一門外語并不象你想象的那么難。

        Smoking is bad for health. 吸煙有害健康。

        That he has won the game is known to us all. 他贏了這場比賽是我們眾所周知的事。

        但what引導的主語從句所指的具體內容是復數意義時,謂語動詞一般用復數形式。如:

        What we need is more time. 我們需要的是更多的時間。

        What we need are good teachers. 我們需要的是好老師。


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      英語培訓
      成人英語培訓
      ag真人视讯